Enfoque por país

Licensing Guidelines and Regulations

Enfoque por país/Poland | Posted 18/11/2013

First posted: 18 November 2013 

In 1999, a mandatory social health insurance scheme was established in Poland. In each of the 16 provinces, self-administering, regional sickness funds were set up; furthermore, sickness funds for certain professions were installed. This system proved to be inefficient and therefore the national health fund (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia, NFZ) under the control of the Ministry of Health(Ministerstwo Zdrowi)was established in 2003 [1]. The national health fund is a third-party payer in public health care. The basic source of financing for health care is income from healthcare contributions from personal income [2].

Licensing Guidelines and Regulations

Enfoque por país/The Netherlands | Posted 11/05/2010

First posted: 12 August 2011 

News articles:

The Dutch healthcare system is characterised by continuous debate and discussion about its structure and reform. Some reforms have helped to prepare the way for the new basic health insurance scheme, which was implemented on 1 January 2006 [1].

Licensing Guidelines and Regulations

Enfoque por país/Belgium | Posted 25/05/2011

The Belgian healthcare system is characterised by a compulsory health insurance system covering 99.9% of the population, which is funded from health insurance contributions and general taxation (79%), from out-of-pocket costs (18%) and from other, external sources (3%), such as a contribution of premiums paid for complementary health insurance, a yearly (licence) fee chargeable to pharmaceutical companies and a levy on the turnover of pharmaceutical companies on the Belgian market [1].

Market Analysis

Enfoque por país/United Kingdom | Posted 25/05/2011

The market share of generic medicines in the UK has more than doubled over the last decade. Public expenditure on generic medicines rose from Euros 655 million in 1994 (market share by value of 8.6%) to Euros 3,625 million in 2004 (market share by value of 20.1%) [1], but dropped to approximately GBP 2,500 million (Euros 2,992 million) in 2005 (market share by value of 29.5%) [2].

Market Analysis

Enfoque por país/Spain | Posted 14/10/2011

The market share of generic medicines was small in the second half of the 1990s, hovering around 1.5% in terms of value and 2% in terms of volume. The 2000 and 2003 generic medicine policies appear to have had a limited impact on the development of the Spanish generic medicines market [1].

Market Analysis

Enfoque por país/Denmark | Posted 08/12/2011

Danish generic medicines policy has created conditions fostering a low-price, high-volume generic medicines market [1].

Market Analysis

Enfoque por país/Portugal | Posted 13/03/2012

First posted: 13 March 2012 

Market shares of generic medicines in Portugal did not exceed 1% in the second half of the 1990s [1].

Market Analysis

Enfoque por país/Austria | Posted 20/04/2012

First posted: 20 April 2012 

In the context of a generic medicines policy that consists of some supply-side measures, but no demand-side measures, the Austrian generic medicines market has developed slowly over the years [1].

Market Analysis

Enfoque por país/Italy | Posted 18/05/2012

First posted: 18 May 2012 

The Italian generic medicine market is small in comparison to the medicine market as a whole. Policy measures to stimulate the generic medicine market in the early 2000s appear to have had limited impact on the generic medicine market share. Market share of generic medicines has grown slowly, but continuously, from 0.9% in 1994 to 11.7% in 2010 in terms of value and from 1.4% in 1994 to 5.8% in 2010 in terms of volume (prescriptions) [1-2].

Market Analysis

Enfoque por país/France | Posted 09/08/2012

First posted: 9 August 2012 

France had an undeveloped generic medicines market during the second half of the 1990s. This changed with the introduction of incentives for physicians and pharmacists in the early 2000s. Market share of generic medicines has grown from 0.9% in 1994 to 10.9% in 2009 in terms of value of consumption and from 1.8% in 1994 to 23.7% in 2009 in terms of volume of consumption [1, 2].